The problem seemed obvious and clear cut. Develop a Likert scale, a semantic differential scale, and a Stapel scale to measure store loyalty. Most people wrote reasonably scales. No one questioned face validity or construct validity because, in all likelihood, marketers constantly ask this question with a second thought. If ever a term needed validity, or at least a second thought, then it would be marketers' use of loyalty. Kathy Sierra makes the money-is-purchase-not-loyalty observation:
I would storm a burning building to get my kids. THAT is loyalty. I would even storm a burning barn to get my horse. But I won’t storm a burning Best Buy no matter how awesome their Reward Zone program. I’m not going to become more loyal to a business no matter how well-executed their Super Awesome VIP Exclusive Content Access Status Rewards Achievements Gamification program is. Not even if Banksy made their badges.
Loyalty when discussed and measured is rarely if ever actually loyalty; it's use. Indeed, it is doubtful that many if even few consumers give loyalty to a retailer or a brand. Many consumers will a retailer or brand their business.
As a result, marketing research focus on transactions or relationships while ignoring loyalty.